C.B-20 mice were immunized with splenocytes or B leukemia cells (BCL1) from Ig H chain allotype congenic strains. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were rechallenged in vitro to generate H-2-restricted cytotoxic T cells that were specific for target antigens controlled by genes linked to the Ig H chain locus. The anti-Ig H cytotoxic T cells detected an antigen(s) expressed only on surface Ig+ cells. Thus, T cell lymphoblasts, eight BALB/c myeloma cell lines, and a T cell lymphoma were not lysed by the effector cells. In contrast, B cell lymphoblasts and the surface Ig+ BCL1 cells were sensitive to lysis. A surface Ig- hybridoma (which secretes the IgM from the BCL1 cells) generated by fusing BCL1 cells to X63 myeloma cells was not killed by the effector cells. These data indicate that cytotoxic T cells specific for antigenic determinants on either surface IgM+ or IgD+ or on a molecule that is coordinately expressed on IgM+ or IgD+ cells can be generated and that such cells might play a role in regulating the growth of normal B cells or surface Ig+ tumor cells in vivo.