H-2D (Rfv-1)-associated control of recovery from FV leukemia was studied in congenic mice. In irradiation chimeras, the high recovery phenotype was transferred by cells of the spleen, bone marrow, and fetal liver. Furthermore, in cell transfers using unirradiated recipients, spleen and bone marrow cells of the high-recovery genotype were able to mediate recovery from leukemia in mice of the low-recovery genotype. Thus, the H-2D (Rfv-1) influence on recovery appeared to operate via nonleukemic cells of the spleen and bone marrow rather than via leukemic cells. The specific nonleukemic cell type(s) involved in recovery remains unknown. However, the mechanism appears to be complex and probably involves both anti-FV antibody and FV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes.