Established subcutaneous Moloney sarcomas (MST-1) of large size and long duration were eliminated from syngeneic rats by intravenous infusion of varying numbers of specific syngeneic effector T lymphocytes. Spleen cells from BN rats in which tumor had regressed were cultured in an in vitro mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture (MLTC) to augment cytotoxicity of effector cells. In the MLTC a T cell subset was expanded in response to MST-1 antigens and transformed into blast elements. With these changes, there was an increase in the W3/25 antigen on the T cell surface, a decrease of W3/13 antigen, and an increase in the number of T cells with Ia antigens. The subset associated with elimination of established tumors was a blast T cell W3/25+, W3/13+, as detected by monoclonal antibodies to rat T antigens. The W3/25+ subset was poorly cytotoxic in vitro for MST-1 and apparently functioned in vivo as an amplifier or helper cell in the tumor-bearing host. The W3/25- population was a melange of cells that included (W3/13+, W3/25-) T cells, null cells, Ig+ cells, and macrophages, and was associated with enhancement of tumor in vivo, suggesting the presence of suppressor cells.