The alloantiserum-dependent lysis of TLX9 lymphoma cells by peritoneal cells from Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-treated mice was inhibited 62 percent by depletion of oxygen. This effect did not appear to be a result of interference with mitochondrial respiration because cyanide, azide, and dinitrophenol did not inhibit cytotoxicity. Preincubating the effector cells for 2 h without glucose, which markedly reduces their ability to release hydrogen peroxide, likewise suppressed antibody-dependent cytolysis by 62 percent. Lysis of sensitized lymphoma cells was virtually abolished by 6 mg/ml of thioglycollate broth, a concentration that also abrogated the detectable release of hydrogen peroxide and the lysis of lymphoma cells by BCG-activated macrophages in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). This concentration of thioglycollate broth was not toxic to the effector cells, as judged by adherence to plastic, binding of opsonized erythrocytes, and phagocytosis of radiolabeled starch granules. Catalase, superoxide dismutase, horseradish peroxidase, mannitol, ethanol, benzoate, and diazabicyclooctane were without consistent effects. Cytochalasin B and dihydrocytochalasin B both markedly suppressed cytolysis, whether induced by antibody or by PMA (ID(50), 0.5 μg/ml). Cytoehalasin B was an equally potent suppressor of glucose uptake and PMA-induced hydrogen peroxide release by BCG-activated macrophages (ID(50), 0.5 μg/ml). However, dihydrocytochalasin B lacked these latter effects, which suggests that cytotoxicity required intact contractile elements. The extracellular lysis of antibody-coated lymphoma cells by BCG-activated macrophages appears to have a predominantly oxidative basis.