The B6.C-H-2bm12 mutant is described and evidence is presented for the mutational site occurring in the IA subregion. The mutant is of the gain and loss type as bm12 in equilibrium or formed from C57BL/6 grafts are rejected in 14-16 d. Mapping studies by the gene-complementation method using H-2 recombinant strains place the mutation in the K or IA regions of the H-2 complex and furthermore, the use of this test and the use of other H-2 mutants indicate that H-2Kb is not the site of the mutation, making the IA region the most likely site. Serological analysis with a battery of H-2b, Iab, and other Ia sera, both by cytotoxicity, rosetting, and also by absorption analysis, indicated no alteration in H-2 specificities, particularly in H-2.K33. By contrast, all of the Iab specificities coded for by the IA subregion (Ia.3, 8, 9, 15, and possibly 20) are extensively altered and are either absent or greatly reduced in amount indicating an extensive alteration in the Ia-bearing molecule. The bm12 mutant strongly stimulates the parental C57BL/6 strain in an mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and the reciprocal also occurs, the degree of stimulation being similar to that obtained with K + IA differences originating in another H-2 haplotype and points to the mutation effecting the Lad-1 locus. The presence of an extensive histocompatibility change, a marked alteration in the serologically detected Ia specificities, and a strong MLR, all produced by the one mutation, provides strong evidence for the identity of the Ia-1, Lad-1, and H-2(IA) loci in the IA subregion. The bm12 mutant should be of value in determining the relationship of Ia specificities, Ir genes, and other phenomena effected by the I region.