The antigenicity of altered structures induced by Plasmodium falciparum in the membranes of infected Aotus monkey and human erythrocytes was examined. Antisera were obtained from monkeys made immune to malaria. Bound antibodies were shown to be localized on the knob protrusions of infected erythrocytes of both human and monkey origin and from both in vitro and in vivo infections. Therefore, P. falciparum infection has produced similar antigenic changes in the erythrocyte surfaces of both man and monkey. Uninfected erythrocytes and all knobless-infected erythrocytes bound no antibody from immune sera. Strains of P. falciparum from widely different geographic areas that were cultured in vitro in human erythrocytes induced structures (knobs) which have common antigenicity. Merozoites were agglutinated by cross-linking of their cell coats when incubated with immune sera. The binding of ferritin-labeled antibody was heavy on the coats of both homologous and heterologous strains of the parasite, indicating that the merozoite surfaces of these strains share common antigens.