Purified schizonts (6--10 nuclei) and membranes of schizont-infected erythrocytes from the Malaysian and Philippine strain of Plasmodium knowlesi are analyzed immunochemically using immunoglobulin of rhesus monkey hyperimmune sera against schizonts and of sera from naturally immune monkeys. The anti-schizont Ig identifies less than 20 immune components in Triton X-100-solubilized schizonts and membranes of infected cells. Of these antigens, 9 (component 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 11, 18, and 20) are common to parasites and membranes of infected erythrocytes, and 12 (2A,B, 6, 8, 9, 12, 13p, 14, 16A,B, 19 A,Bp, 21, 22p, and 23) are predominantly found in the parasite; 4 components (13i, 19A,Bi, 22A, B, and 24) are unique to the membrane of infected erythrocytes. Only three parasite-specific components (1, 13, and 19) are exposed on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes as revealed by both lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination and extensive absorption of anti-schizont Ig using intact infected erythrocytes. Two plasmodium-specific antigens (1 and 13) on the surface of infected erythrocytes are recognized by sera of rhesus monkeys rendered naturally immune against P. knowlesi infections and, therefore, represent antigens in vivo. Analyses of schizonts and membranes of parasitized erythrocytes of the two different strains of P. knowlesi yields only some minor quantitative, but no qualitative differences when analyzed with both types of antisera. Importantly, components 1 and 13 appear identical in both strains.