Human helper factors were obtained from supernates of 48 h unidirectional allogeneic and autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. These supernates were shown to induce the production of large amounts of immunoglobulin by tonsillar and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Abundant polyclonal activation to antibody production occurred in these cultures in the absence of antigenic challenge which was similar in degree to that produced by pokeweed mitogen. This was documented by quantitating plasma cells, specific plaque-forming cells, and secreted immunoglobulin. In addition, the supplementation of companion cultures with sheep erythrocytes resulted in a significant enhancement of the specific plaque-forming cell response without an appreciable change in plasma cell number of secreted Ig.