Cytotoxic effector lymphocytes were induced in cultures of mouse spleen or lymph node cells by lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF). The LPF-activated cytotoxic cells: (a) were not generated unless proliferation occurred; (b) sedimented in the lighter density fraction of a bovine serum albumin gradient; (c) were large, blast-like cells; and (d) were lysed by Thy-1.2 antiserum plus complement and, therefore, were T cells. Neither LPF alone nor supernates from stimulated cultures were cytotoxic. Unlike the situation with concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin P, LPF-stimulated cytotoxic effector lymphocytes required no further addition of mitogen for maximal cytotoxicity. The effector cells displayed specificity, destroying only allogeneic but not syngeneic normal cells; in the case of tumor cells, both allogeneic and syngeneic cells werelysed in the absence of added mitogen. The reason for differentiated cytotoxicity toward syngeneic tumor and normal cells is not clear but may have some relevance to in vivo tumor rejection initiated by Bordetella pertussis.