More than 5% of murine splenic lymphocytes form rosettes with syngeneic erythrocytes. This property was maximally expressed when the lymphocytes were cultured for 24 h before rosetting. About 70% of the rosetting lymphocytes were B cells and 30% were T cells on the basis of surface immunoglobulin and the Thy-1-antigen. Capping surface immunoglobulin had no effect on the capacity of lymphocytes to form rosettes, indicating that the receptor in question was not immunoglobulin. The capacity of lymphocytes to form rosettes with erythrocytes from other strains of mice was H-2 restricted. Extensive pairings of congenic and recombinant strains as donors of lymphocytes and erythrocytes showed that none of the known loci within the H-2 region-controlled rosetting. The involvement of regions on chromosome 17, telomeric or centromeric to H-2, was also excluded. The data were only compatible with the conclusion that this form of self-recognition is associated with a new locus (or loci) mapping between H-2G and H-2D.