We have described here two distinct types of carrier-specific helper T cells which act independently and synergistically to augment the B-cell response to a hapten. They are separable by passage through a nylon wool column. The first type of helper T cell, which we designate as Th1, is nylon nonadherent, and can help the response of hapten-primed B cells only if the haptenic and carrier determinants are present on a single molecule (cognate interaction). The second type of helper T cell, Th2, adheres to the nylon wool column, and can help the B-cell response to a hapten coupled to a heterologous carrier upon stimulation with unconjugated relevant carrier (polyclonal interaction). The addition of a small number of Th2 to the mixture of Th1 and B cells significantly augmented the net response to the hapten carrier conjugate. Both Th1 and Th2 cells belong to the Lyt-1+,2-,3- subclass. Th1 has no detectable Ia antigen, whereas Th2 is killed by certain anti-Ia antisera and complement. The Ia antigen detected on Th2 was found to be controlled by a locus in the I-J subregion. The results clearly established the fact that there are two distinct pathways in the T- and B-cell collaboration, which involves two different subsets of carrier-specific helper T cells.