Mouse lymphocyte H-2 and Ia glycoproteins have been analyzed with a two-dimensional (2-D) acrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, in which proteins are separated first according to their charge in isoelectrofocusing gels and then according to their size in sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Individual polypeptide chains from radiolabeled cells are resolved as discrete spots on autoradiograms of the gels, forming patterns which are characteristic of the proteins in the sample. 2-D gels of H-2K, H-2D, and Ia glycoproteins immunoprecipitated from 35S-methionine-labeled cells reveal that these proteins exist in the cells as complex arrays of molecules heterogeneous in both size and charge. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination of lymphocyte surfaces labels only subsets of the total H-2 and Ia molecules with 125I, indicating that some of the molecules may represent cytoplasmic precursors of the cell surface proteins. This theory is supported by the kinetics of labeling of various spots in 35S-methionine pulse-chase experiments. The 2-D gel patterns obtained for both H-2 and Ia antigens have also been shown to be haplotype-specific and independent of the genetic background.