Many enterobacteria can cause agglutination of erythrocytes, but previous investigations have not proven which components of the bacteria are responsible. We used a strain of Escherichia coli K12 which causes mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (HA) of guinea pig cells. Common pili were purified from these bacteria by shearing them from the bacteria followed by selective precipitation in acid and ammonium sulfate. Isopycnic centrifugation in cesium chloride removed the remaining outer membrane protein contaminants. These pili are pure by electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis. By amino acid analysis, they have a mol wt of 17,099 and consist of 45% nonpolar residues. These purified pili agglutinate guinea pig erythrocytes, a reaction that is inhibited by anti-pili antibodies and by saccharides related in structure to D-mannose. Proteolytic treatment of erythrocytes does not diminish HA but rather increases the pili-induced HA of human cells. Neuraminidase enhances HA and mannosidase slightly diminishes it. It is concluded that purified pili alone cause HA of erythrocytes by binding to mannose-like molecules on the erythrocyte surface. Thus HA by bacterial pili serves as a useful model system for the mechanism of bacterial pili attachment ot cell membranes.