A secondary specific cytotoxic response is obtained when lymphocytes primed in vivo to a tumor allograft are exposed to Con A in culture. The secondary cytotoxic cells generated are specific to target cells bearing antigens of the primary sensitizing cells and are qualitatively indistinguishable from the response obtained upon secondary antigenic stimulation. The cell-mediated cytotoxicity is independent of concanavalin A (Con A) and is not affected by the Con A-specific inhibitor, alpha-methyl-D-mannose pyranoside. Furthermore, cultures containing a mixture of submitogenic concentrations of Con A and stimulating antigens showed synergy and augmentation of cytotoxic activity. It is suggested that activation of prekiller cells by Con A into CTL may be mediated via the same or similar receptors normally triggered by the stimulating antigens. Functional similarities between ConA and the lymphocyte-defined antigens of the major histocompatibility complex region are discussed.