Splenic and peritoneal macrophages from mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum enhanced the antibody response in vitro of normal nonadherent spleen cells to SRBC, but not to DNP-POL. This enhancement was dependent on the dose and time of administration of C. parvum and could be abrogated by pretreatment with carrageenan. Macrophages from T-cell-depleted mice failed to enhance the response, but this ability was restored if the mice had been reconstituted with purified T lymphocytes. Macrophages that are activated by C. parvum are a resident nondividing population. It is postulated that activated macrophages, capable of enhancing antibody responses to T-cell-dependent antigens, arise through a cell-mediated reaction to C. parvum.