Human iron-saturated Lf (FeLf), which was labeled with 125I or 50Fe, was found to combine with the membrane of mouse peritoneal cells (MPC) which consisted of 70% macrophages. The following experimental data suggested the involvement of a specific receptor. (a) The binding of FeLf to MPC reached a saturation point. (b) The binding of radioactive FeLf was inhibited by preincubating the cells with cold FeLf but not with human Tf, human aggregated and nonaggregated IgG, or beef heart cytochrome c (c) Succinylation and carbamylation of FeLf resulted in a loss of its inhibiting activity on the binding of radioactive FeLf. Removal of neuraminic acid from FeLf increased its inhibitory activity. (d) The ability of apoLf to inhibit the binding of FeLf to MPC was significantly lower than that of FeLf. The existence of a Lf receptor capable of concentrating Lf released from neutrophils on the membrane of macrophages could explain the apparent blockade of the release of iron from the reticuloendothelial system, which accounts for the hyposideremia of inflammation. A receptor for FeLf was also found on mouse peritoneal lymphocytes. The affinity constant of FeLf for both lymphocytes and macrophages was 0.9 X 12(6) liter/mol. Howerver, macrophages bound three times more FeLf molecules (20 X 10(6)) per cell than did lymphocytes (7 X 10(6)).