Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can interact in at least two ways with rat T cells. By adsorbing to circulating lymphocytes, the virus can transiently deflect the cells from lymph nodes and inflammatory exudates induced in the peritoneal cavity. T cells are affected regardless of age, state of activation, or position in the mitotic cycle. The effect is reversible and is mediated not only by infectious (I)-NDV, but also by UV-NDV which cannot achieve a complete replication cycle in eggs. But I-NDV has another lasting effect on activated T cells. It is revealed in the failure of virus-treated thoracic duct lymphocytes to transfer cellular resistance to Listeria monocytogenes, delayed-type hypersensitivity to soluble antigens of the parasite, and the permanent exclusion of labeled S-phase lymphocytes from inflammatory foci. Activated T cells are inhibited by virus multiplicites which have little if any effect upon the proliferative potential of antigen-sensitive T cells or localization of labeled small lymphocytes in lymph nodes. The underlying mechanism has not been determined; however, there are reasons for thinking that NDV has a lethal effect upon activated T cells, because the latter are permissive for virus replication.