Human blood lymphocytes were fractionated on glass bead columns charged with sheep erythrocyte (Es) membranes-bearing human C3b (7,000-10,000 molecules/Es). In the passaged cells the proportion of C receptor lymphocytes was strongly reduced, in parallel with the capacity to lyse chicken erythrocytes (Ec) in the presence of IgG-rabbit anti-Ec antibody. In other experiments, lymphocytes forming rosettes with Es bearing activated rabbit complement [C(ra)] from C6-deficient rabbits were removed by centrifugation through human serum albumin-gelatine mixtures. This procedure also depleted the lymphocyte preparations of antibody-dependent cytolytic effector cells. The results suggest that rations of antibody-dependent cytolytic effector cells. The result suggest that such effector cells have receptors for human C as well as for C(ra). Lymphocytes were not able to lyse erythrocytes bearing either human C3b (similar to 30,000 molecules/Ec) or activated C(ra) in the absence if IgG antierythrocyte antibodies. Under the same experimental conditions these target cells were efficiently lysed in the presence of small amounts of IgG antitarget cell antibodies. This suggests that the interaction between the cellular Fcreceptors and the Fc part of the inducing antibodies is of special significance for the triggering of the cell-mediated lytic reaction. However, although target cell-bound C did not trigger cytolysis, it seemed to potentiate antibody-dependent cytolysis, probably by enhancing effector cell-target cell contacts.