- Gli3 promotes B cell development in fetal liver
Solanki et al. show that stromal activity of the transcription factor Gli3 is required for B cell development in the fetal liver. Gli3 functions to repress Shh expression, and Shh signals to developing B cells to regulate their development at multiple developmental stages.
- Tissue-resident T cells are sentinels in the liver
Pallett et al. identify tissue-resident memory CD8 T cells compartmentalized in the healthy human liver that expand in controlled hepatotropic infection and can swiftly produce antiviral cytokines. This prototype may inform the development of liver-targeted T cell immunotherapy.
- Mechanisms for pneumococcal brain invasion
Pneumococci are major causes of bacterial meningitis. Iovino et al. show that pneumococci invade the brain and pass the blood–brain barrier by interacting with the endothelial receptors pIgR and PECAM-1 recognizing the pneumococcal adhesin RrgA and PspC on the bacterial surface.
- SMAC mimetic–induced tumor cell death
He et al. demonstrate that SMAC mimetic is efficient to target caspase-8–deficient colorectal cancer by induction of necroptosis. This study represents an attractive strategy for overcoming apoptosis resistance in colorectal cancer for the development of more effective personalized therapy.
- VH4-34 antibodies recognize commensal bacteria
The human VH4-34 gene segment encodes intrinsically self-reactive antibodies that recognize I/i carbohydrates. Schickel et al. show that these self-reactive clones may represent an innate-like B cell population specialized in the containment of commensal bacteria when gut barriers are breached.
- IL-22 binding protein regulates antigen uptake
IL-22 binding protein inhibits IL-22 signaling, which is important for intestinal homeostasis. Jinnohara et al. report that IL-22 binding protein is strongly expressed by Peyer’s patch dendritic cells and facilitates the M cell uptake of bacterial antigens into Peyer’s patches.
- IL-4 promotes ex-Foxp3 Th2 cells
Pelly et al. use novel mouse reporter systems to show that a proportion of Th2 cells develop from Foxp3-expressing cells in an IL-4–dependent manner, highlighting the potential to subvert T reg cell–mediated suppression in favor of type 2 immunity.